This page contains a list of publications, papers and presentations produced in the scope of this project.

The presentations are available in PDF format.

Publications and presentations (or links) related to the scope of the project and produced by external parties are made available on this website upon approval between the original author and the project coordinator.

Metrology for LNG Workshop and European Flow Measurement Workshop April 2017

The NIST/CEESI Liquid Nitrogen Flow Facility

This paper presents the current status of a liquid nitrogen calibration facility. Previously located on the NIST Boulder campus, it has been moved to the CEESI facility. The paper begins with a brief history, typical applications and a description of the operation. The discussion continues with a summary of the uncertainty components. Finally, the analysis of some historical data is presented:

The NIST_CEESI Liquid Nitrogen Flow Facility

Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport

In the framework of the ongoing EMRP Joint Research Project (JRP) ENG 60 “Metrology for LNG” (2014-2017), co-funded by the European Union, a number of metrological challenges associated with custody transfer and transport of LNG will be faced. The project consists of four technical work packages (WP), whereby the main objective is to reduce the measurement uncertainty of LNG custody transfer by a factor two. The focus in WP1 is the design and development of a traceable mid-scale calibration standard for LNG mass and volume flow. The goal is to provide traceable mass and volume flow calibrations up to 400 m3/h (180000 kg/h). In WP2, the emphasis is on the development and validation of a LNG sampling and composition measurement reference standard, consisting of sampler, vaporizer, gas standards, and gas chromatography (GC), which will be used to test and calibrate commercially available LNG sampling and composition measurement systems. The priority in WP3 is given to the development and validation of a method for the determination of the methane number, including correlations based on the LNG composition and corrections for traces of nitrogen and higher hydrocarbons. Since physical properties and quantities play an important role in LNG custody transfer, WP4 comprises reference quality density measurements of LNG to validate and improve models for LNG density predictions, the uncertainty evaluation of enthalpy and calorific value calculations and the development of a novel cryogenic sensor for the simultaneous measurement of speed-of-sound and density. The present paper gives an overview of recently achieved objectives within the project and provides an outlook to future activities.

Read the paper here: FLOMEKO_Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport


Presentation from the Marine Fuel and Lubricants conference (MFL)

Metrology for LNG as transport fuel (VSL)

World’s first LNG research and calibration facility

A Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) flowmeter research and calibration facility is being built in Rotterdam by the Dutch metrology institute VSL. This cryogenic test loop will also be used to test and develop LNG analysers, new technologies and devices for measurement of LNG physical properties. The facility will consist of a Primary Standard Loop (PSL) that can measure the mass of LNG flows traceable to the International Kilogram standard in Paris. The primary standard is capable of flow measurements up to 25 m3/hr. A second Midscale Standard Loop (MSL) will measure volumetric flow rate of up to 200 m3/h, expandable to at least 400 m3/h in the future. The Midscale standard is traceable to the PSL and scales the flowrate up using bootstrapping techniques. This paper describes the combined PSL and MSL facility, its objectives, and accomplishments to date.

Read the paper here: FLOMEKO_World’s first LNG research and calibration facility

Presentations from the 4th International Workshop of Metrology for LNG

The LNG Training course – 15th June 2016

The Workshop – Metrology for LNG, 16th June 2016

19th Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, June 2015, Boulder, CO, USA

Lentner, R.; Richter, M.; Kleinrahm, R.; Span, R.: Accurate (p, ρ, T, x) Measurements on Different Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Mixtures in the Temperature Range from (105 to 135) K at Pressures up to 9 MPa. Poster, 19th Symp. on Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, USA, 2015.
Lentner et al_Poster Symposium 2015


Development of a special single-sinker densimeter for cryogenic liquid mixtures and first results for a liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Richter, M.; Kleinrahm, R.; Lentner, R.; Span, R.: Development of a special single-sinker densimeter for cryogenic liquid mixtures and first results for a liquefied natural gas (LNG). J. Chem. Thermodyn. 93 (2016), 205 – 221. doi:10.1016/j.jct.2015.09.034

Reports from the EMRP 2009 ENG03 JRP

Metrology for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)


The 3rd International «Metrology for LNG» Workshop, 19. May 2015


Conference «Metrology for LNG» (Delft – The Netherlands, October 17th and 18th, 2013)

Presentations October 17th

Presentations October 18th 

Poster presentations 

2nd International Workshop – Metrology for LNG (East Kilbride, UK, October 31st, 2011)



Metering of LNG workshop (Stockholm – Sweden, November 9th, 2010)


External publications

The International System of Units (SI)
BIPM – The International System of Units (SI) – 8th edition 2006
NIST – Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)

Measurement uncertainty evaluation
BIPM – Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) – 2008 edition

Vocabulary used in Metrology
BIPM – International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms VIM, 3rd edition – 2012 edition

Legal Metrology
OIML – R80-1 Road and rail tankers with level gauging – 2009 edition
OIML – R81 Dynamic measuring devices and systems for cryogenic liquids – 1998 edition
OIML – R117-1 Dynamic measuring systems for liquids other than water – 2007 edition
OIML – R137-1 Gas meters – 2006 edition

International group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers