WP1: Reduced uncertainty for dynamic flow measurements
WP1 builds on the work on traceability for inline flow metering technologies in the preceding EMRP JRPs ENG03 LNG and ENG60 LNG II with the aim of producing flow calibration standards for small and mid-scale LNG industries to enable a reduction in measurement uncertainty.
In Task 1.1, flow meters from different suppliers will be systematically assessed for their measurement uncertainty due to several influencing parameters (e.g. flow disturbances, multi-phase flow and the impact of meter insulation and inclination) under both ambient (water) and cryogenic (LNG) flow conditions with the target of reducing this uncertainty to the level comparable to that of conventional fluids, which is currently 0.5 %. An ECT system will be used in Task 1.1 to enable flow visualisation and to provide information on the distribution of multi-phase and fluid velocity profiles.
In Task 1.2 a feasibility study will investigate whether flow measurement uncertainty can be reduced further using a cryogenic piston prover.
Task 1.3 will complete the prototype cryogenic LDV standard developed in the preceding JRPs ENG03 LNG and ENG60 LNG II and validate it under ‘real’ cryogenic conditions. Results from these projects have so far suggested that a target measurement uncertainty of less than 0.2 % is possible in cryogenic conditions. Numerical calculations will be used to support the development of the prototype cryogenic LDV standard and data from the prototype cryogenic LDV standard will be used to validate the numerical calculations.
In Task 1.4, a feasibility study will be undertaken for the building of a small to mid-scale flow test facility with a target flow rate of 400 ~ 1000 m3/h. This will be undertaken in order to extend the capability of traceable calibrations to meet the needs of the LNG industry (i.e. refuelling and bunkering applications). The initial target measurement uncertainty for the small to mid-scale flow test facility is to meet current OIML recommendations of 1.5 % but the ultimate target is to achieve the conventional fluids uncertainty level of 0.5 %.
WP2: Traceable small scale liquefier and density measurements
The first aim of WP2 is to develop and validate a small scale liquefier using a reference quality liquefaction technique for natural gas and similar gas mixtures. This reference liquefier will be used in Task 2.1 for the validation of LNG and LBG sampling and composition measurement systems and it will be based on GC and Raman Spectroscopy.
The second aim of WP2 is to assess the currently available technologies for LNG density measurements and to make recommendations for improved density measurements (Task 2.2). The tests will be carried out both at ambient temperatures, using water, and at cryogenic temperatures, using LNG (as part of Task 1.1). Reference density measurements will also be made using the primary densitometer developed by RUB in EMRP JRPs ENG03 LNG and ENG60 LNG II and the sensor for simultaneous density and SoS measurements developed by INRIM in EMRP JRP ENG60.
The final aim of WP2 is to assess the source, content and potential impact of particles, particularly in LBG. To do this, a new method will be developed in Task 2.3 to traceably determine the mass concentration of particulates on a filter. LNG and in particular LBG can contain small particles which affect engine performance. Therefore, the mass of particles in LBG needs to be known in order to decide on e.g. service intervals and the type of particle filters used at fuelling stations. The method of catching the particles onto the filter will be investigated, including the loss of particles through a standard regulator. Based on the results a good practice guide for filter weighing and the sampling particulates at LNG/LBG refuelling stations will be written.
WP3: Smart sensor development and testing
The aim of WP3 is to improve methods and (inline) sensors for cost-effective measurement of gas composition, MN and MS. For real time engine management, the fuel composition (or related MN) at the inlet and residual fuel and contaminants at the outlet (MS) needs to be accurately assessed, and the sensor development/testing in WP3 will be used in WP4 with real time engine tests in order to improve engine management and engine performance.
In WP3 the project makes a distinction between sensors and detectors; i.e. a sensor is a miniature device that can be permanently installed in the intake or exhaust side of the engine, and can be used for motor management applications. A detector is a larger device that can be used for in-line measurement or temporarily installed during engine tests. It is also used for engine and fuel validation and for the calibration and assessment of the performance of the in-line sensors or in a permanent way in industrial applications (LNG terminals for example).
WP4: Smart sensor validation and engine tests
The aim of WP4 is the practical assessment of the knocking propensity of LNG as fuel. In order to operate an engine in the most efficient way, it should be run as close as possible to its knocking point i.e. the point during the engine combustion where part of the fuel spontaneously ignites ahead of the flame front and burns in an uncontrolled manner. The MN, together with the engine type and the operational conditions, determines the knocking point. Consequently, in order to run an engine at its most efficient setting, the MN needs to be accurately determined.
The composition of natural gas around the globe shows significant variations, which affects physical-chemical properties, such as the density and the heating value, and perhaps, most important for engines, the combustion properties. In terms of the gas quality measure: the MN ranges from 70 to 100 MN with global natural gas variation, therefore, the effect on the performance and emissions of (partially) premixed internal combustion engines can be huge.
WP5: Creating impact
The aim of this work package is to ensure the wide dissemination of the knowledge generated within this project. Information and on-going feedback will also be gathered regarding the needs of stakeholders via the project’s Advisory Board. WP5 will ensure that the developments achieved in this project are available for end users by a combination of knowledge transfer, training and exploitation activities and by jointly working with key LNG industrial stakeholders, international standardisation committees and industrial user groups.
WP6: Management and coordination
The project will be managed by the coordinator from VSL, who will be supported by the project management board consisting of at least the leaders of each work package. The coordinator and members of the project management board will guide the project, attend the project meetings, organise the progress meetings at their local institutes and call additional meetings if needed to ensure the overall project’s success.